At the time of the project, there had not been a new nuclear power plant brought online in the United States for 17 years. These reactors had developed cracks with time, and they had to be repaired with weld overlays.* Nickel based wire is used to weld the overlays to repair reactors. Nickel alloy is used for its high temperature and corrosion resistance.
Nickel based weld wire has a tendency to have pure fluid flow and wetting, but also oxidation and cracking problems. This makes welding with Nickel based wire difficult for the operator. See project details.
Little was known about the correlation between preheating of High Performance Steel (HPS), hydrogen induced cracking, and certain specialty electrodes. The purpose of this project was to independently test, observe, and record Lincoln Electric’s UltraCore 712c and UltraCore8Ni1c-H flux cored welding electrodes susceptibility to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in HPS, and, in doing so, to establish a minimum preheat temperature. See project details.
The main driving force for the project was reduction of production and transportation costs for sheet metal cabinets. The original designs were fabricated using welding as primary technique. Rework and shipping space were the major disadvantages. The existing data on joint strength for adhesives, provided by the manufacturers, was unreliable and inconsistent. See project details.
Stud welding is a relatively simple process that is used in construction of bridges. High Performance Steels (HPS) are widely used in the bridge decking for weathering applications. The most common of these used are HPS 70W and HPS 100W. Even though HPS 70W and HPS 100W are designed to be out in the weather, they will corrode over time. To overcome this failure that will occur, 403 Ferritic stainless steel was to be evaluated for bridge decking on Zn coated surfaces (hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized). See project details.