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Catalog 2012-2013
Table of Contents


Psychology (PSYC)
Department of Psychology

PSYC 2013   Introduction To Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Fundamental theories, problems, and procedures relating to human activity. Biological, social, and cultural factors in development. Topics include neuroscience, development, gender, sensation and perception, learning, memory, thinking, motivation and emotion, stress, personality, psychological disorders and therapy, and social psychology. Class 3.

PSYC 2033   Professions in Psychology
This course provides an introduction to the psychology major and career opportunities in psychology, counseling, and the helping professions. Students are provided with opportunities to develop career planning and decision-making skills that will help them achieve success as a psychology major and in a psychology career. Students will pursue experience in a psychological setting under the supervision of a psychologist or social worker. The student will learn by observing and writing about their experiences. Assessment of personal goals, values, interests, and abilities is emphasized. Class 3. (Fall)

PSYC 2143   Human Growth And Development
This course involves the study of biopsychosocial and spiritual aspects of development from birth to death. Through the examination of various theories and research, this course will allow students to experience a greater understanding of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development through the lifespan. Class 3. (Fall)

PSYC 2163   Personality Theory
A study of the major psychological theories of personality development and change. Classic questions about human nature will be discussed. Among the major approaches to personality theory that will be covered are Psychoanalytic, Neopsychoanalytic, Life-Span, Trait, Humanistic, Cognitive, Behavioral, Social-Learning, and modern advances in personality theory. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Spring)

PSYC 3003   Theories And Techniques Of Counseling
This course provides an introduction to the key theoretical concepts and therapeutic techniques of the major approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. The practical applications and empirical support of each counseling approach are discussed. Areas of convergence and divergence of each counseling approach are evaluated within a broader Christian framework. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall)

PSYC 3203   Marriage And The Family
A study of family relationships from courtship to death. Patterns of husband-wife, parent-child, and parent-youth relationships in contemporary society. A Christian view of the institution of marriage and family is given in order to provide a better understanding of how Biblical principles can be applied to practical family problems in a changing world. Class 3. (Spring, Even years)

PSYC 3303   History And Systems Of Psychology
Survey of the history of psychology from the early philosophers and physiologists to the present. Various schools of psychology including voluntarism, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, and contemporary developments in psychology will be covered. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 2163.. (Fall)

PSYC 3403   Learning And Cognition
A study of traditional and current approaches to learning and memory in humans and animals. Behavioral, social-learning, and cognitive approaches to learning will be specifically addressed. Discussion will include the development of cognitive skills such as conceptual behavior, problem solving, remembering and forgetting, language, and the biology of cognition. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Spring, Odd years)

PSYC 3503   Psychology Of Gender
This course examines the psychology of using gender as a framework for life. How do our conceptions of male and female affect cognition, emotion, and behavior? Topics studied will include biology and gender; gender and culture; gender roles and stereotypes; gender identity development; and gender, mental health, and psychopathology. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall, Odd years)

PSYC 3513   Health Psychology
This course examines the contributions of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of etiologic and diagnostic correlates of health, illness, and related dysfunction, and to the analysis and improvement of the health care system and health policy formation. The biopsychosocial model is used to frame discussion of topics such as stress, high-risk behaviors, coping with chronic or catastrophic illness, and promoting health in children and the elderly. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall, Even years)

PSYC 3653   Principles Of Sport Psychology
Sport psychology is concerned with the psychological factors that influence participation in sport and exercise and with the psychological effects derived from participation. The psychosocial issues related to sport and exercise to be discussed include personality; anxiety and arousal; attribution and motivation; and cognitive-behavioral intervention in sport. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall, Odd years)

PSYC 4023   Basic Counseling Skills/PSYC 5023 Counseling Skills and Techniques
This course focuses on basic counseling skills that facilitate growth in helping relationships. Students are provided with opportunities to practice and develop essential attending, listening, and facilitation skills. Other topics addressed in this course include biblical principles of helping, counseling skills for special populations, and ethical and professional issues. Recommended for all students interested in counseling, ministry, or other helping professions.

This course is a dual-listed course for optional graduate credit. Students with at least junior level status who are interested in pursuing graduate level coursework will have the option of completing these courses as undergraduate students with graduate level credit. Students should consult with faculty advisors to ensure accurate enrollment status.
Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 3003 or consent of instructor.. (Even years)

PSYC 4103   Educational Psychology
The systematic study of the nature of child development and diversity, learning and motivation, and classroom strategies. The student will also learn how educational psychology applies its research findings to the identification and development of effective instructional practices. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 2143 or consent of instructor. (Fall, Even years)

PSYC 4113   Social Psychology
A study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. Topics include the accuracy of our impressions, attitudes, conformity, persuasion, group influence, prejudice, aggression, altruism, and conflict and peacemaking. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall, Even years)

PSYC 4203   Group Therapy/ PSYC 5203 Group Counseling Methods
This course is a study of various approaches to group therapy. Students will be introduced to skills necessary for working with various types of groups. The course will provide an introduction to and an overview of group dynamics and process. Additionally, students will consider group counseling within the greater context of a biblical worldview.

This course is a dual-listed course for optional graduate credit. Students with at least junior level status who are interested in pursuing graduate level coursework will have the option of completing these courses as undergraduate students with graduate level credit. Students should consult with faculty advisors to ensure accurate enrollment status.
Class 3. (Spring, Even years)

PSYC 4303   Abnormal Psychology/ PSYC 5043 Psychopathology
This class is a study of various psychological disorders, their origins and available treatments. The course will utilize an integrative approach to consider biological, social, psychological, and spiritual of psychopathology. In addition to discussion of disorders, students will consider implications of diagnosing, will identify myths surrounding mental illness, and will be able to identify accurately incorrect information in media regarding specific disorders.

This course is a dual-listed course for optional graduate credit. Students with at least junior level status who are interested in pursuing graduate level coursework will have the option of completing these courses as undergraduate students with graduate level credit. Students should consult with faculty advisors to ensure accurate enrollment status.
Class 3. (Spring, Odd years)

PSYC 4313   Theories and Techniques of Child Counseling
This course overviews many of the ways that children can be helped to make changes and to become healthier. Techniques for young children such as play therapy and behavior modification and techniques for pre-teens and adolescents such as psychodrama and reality therapy will be covered. An emphasis will be placed on how to incorporate Christian principles into the process of helping children. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013, PSYC 2143, and EDUC 3143. (Spring, Odd years)

PSYC 4403   Tests and Measurements/ PSYC 5133 Psychological Testing and Assessment
A study of the principles of psychological testing, including both the theoretical and practical foundations underlying the construction, implementation, and interpretation of various psychological instruments. Achievement, intelligence, personality, and career instruments will be examined.

This course is a dual-listed course for optional graduate credit. Students with at least junior level status who are interested in pursuing graduate level coursework will have the option of completing these courses as undergraduate students with graduate level credit. Students should consult with faculty advisors to ensure accurate enrollment status.
Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 4603. (Spring, Odd years)

PSYC 4503   Physiological Psychology
The study of the physiological and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience. Topics discussed will include nerve cells and impulses, synapses, the anatomy of the nervous system, development of the brain, the sensory systems, movement, waking and sleeping, internal regulation, reproductive behaviors, emotional behaviors, the biology of learning and memory, cognitive functions, and psychological disorders. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 4303 or consent of instructor.. (Fall, Odd years)

PSYC 4513   Human Sexuality/5113
This course provides a basic introduction to counseling for sexual issues. Students are introduced to a theology of sexuality, a basic model of addressing sexual issues in counseling, basics of sexual biology and psychology, sexual development, sexual dysfunction, and basic intervention techniques for sexual problems. Students also are challenged in their own growth and development in this area. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior level status, or consent of the instructor.

This course is a dual-listed course for optional graduate credit. Students with at least junior level status who are interested in pursuing graduate level coursework will have the option of completing these courses as undergraduate students with graduate level credit, after obtaining provisional admission to a LETU graduate program. The bridge program allows the dual-listed course option in which undergraduate students achieve graduate level rigor, allowing course substitution into existing LETU graduate programs. Students should consult with faculty advisors to ensure accurate enrollment status.
Class 3.

PSYC 4603   Statistics and Research Methods I
An examination of statistics and research methods used in psychology. In statistics, students will study using descriptive statistics to describe samples and means and will study describing relationships using correlations. In research methods, students will study the scientific method, creating hypotheses, reliability and validity, the ethics of research, and controlling participant variables.Students will learn how to write APA style reports and how to use SPSS for statistical analysis. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 2013. (Fall)

PSYC 4703   Statistics and Research Methods II
An examination of statistics and research methods used in psychology. In statistics, students will study inferential statistics with such topics as probability, z-scores, t-tests, analysis of variance, and chi-square and other nonparametric procedures. In research methods, students will study the conceptual application of appropriate statistics and research design, questionnaire construction, field experiments, quasi-experiments, and descriptive designs. Students will learn how to write APA style reports and how to use SPSS for statistical analysis. Students will be expected to design and conduct an original research project. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC2013 and PSYC4603. (Spring)

PSYC 4713   Senior Seminar
This seminar provides an exploration of contemporary approaches to the integration of psychology and the Christian faith. Students are required to discuss primary and secondary resources in psychology and theology, evaluate and integrate the major theoretical perspectives in psychology within a broader Christian worldview, and articulate their own understanding of faith integration. Class 3. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing or consent of instructor. (Spring)

PSYC 4933   Practicum
This course provides the opportunity for students considering careers in psychology to gain firsthand experience in the climate and work conditions of occupations within the subfields of psychology. Work expectations may differ from setting to setting. Students will keep a journal of site activities and will maintain close contact with site supervisors. A practicum manual detailing all course requirements and including all necessary forms will be made available to students upon registration. This course may be taken more than once with the permission of the Psychology Department. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 2013 and PSYC 3003 or consent of instructor.

PSYC 4941-4983   Special Topics
A course to be utilized for seminars and special classes in topics not offered on a regular basis. This course may be taken more than one time when the topics are different. Class 1-3. Prerequisite: Advanced standing or consent of instructor.

PSYC 4991-4993   Independent Study
An independent study course designed to permit superior students to take advantage of independent research and other unusual academic opportunities. Class 1-3. Prerequisites: Advanced standing and permission of the Psychology department..

PSYC 5003   Introduction to Counseling
A study of the major approaches and classic research within counseling psychology, this course is designed to introduce students to professional counseling. Students will review history and systems, personality theory, the mind-body connection, and basic research methods of psychology. Students will be introduced to the concepts of psychotherapy and personal, group, and family counseling. Specialties within the field of counseling and other mental health disciplines will be reviewed. Consideration will be given to the role of the Christian faith within the context of professional counseling. This course should be taken by students who enter the program with less than 12 hours in psychology and/or counseling and who choose not to use the dual enrollment option to meet admissions requirements. This course is offered online only. Class 3.

PSYC 5012   Integrative Theology for Counselors
Consideration of historical, systematic, Biblical and philosophical theology as relevant to issues of the nature of God and man. Students examine the implications of theology upon the counseling context and receive additional training in explicit integration. Class 2.

PSYC 5013   Advanced Abnormal Psychology
This class is a study of various psychological disorders, their origins and available treatments. We will use an integrative approach to consider all components of psychopathology: biological, social, psychological, and spiritual. Students will be required to complete a research project on a category of disorders, evidencing mastery of material prerequisite to an understanding of assessment and diagnosis. This course should be taken by students who enter the program with no previous undergraduate or graduate coursework in abnormal psychology and who choose not to use the dual enrollment option to meet the leveling requirement. This course is offered online only. Class 3.

PSYC 5023   Counseling Skills and Techniques
A study designed to train students in skills necessary to establish and maintain an effective helping relationship. Basic methods, skills and techniques of counseling such as empathy, paraphrasing, reflecting, clarification and summarizing will be taught using both lecture and experiential means. Students will have the opportunity to practice these and many other basic skills through role-plays, recordings (video and audio) and supervised counseling sessions. Class 3.

PSYC 5033   Ethical, Legal & Professional Standards in Counseling Practice
A study of professional standards, ethical guidelines, legal aspects of practice, standards of preparation for the profession, objectives of professional organizations, and the professional identity of persons providing direct counseling services. The ethical discussions include input from the profession, one's internal values, and Judeo-Christian influence. Students will explore issues, professional and ethical/legal, affecting mental health practitioners in daily practice. Class 3.

PSYC 5043   Psychopathology: Diagnosis & Treatment of Mental Disorders
A study of psychopathology to aid the student in understanding problems of definition and classification of abnormal human behavior; development of skill in making diagnoses; a working knowledge of the diagnostic categories in the DSM-IV-TR; and an understanding of the varying philosophies relative to diagnosis and treatment of abnormal behavior. The student will gain an appreciation of the interaction of Christian belief systems with a view of normal and abnormal behavior. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 5013 or previous undergraduate or graduate coursework in abnormal psychology..

PSYC 5053   Research Methods
A study of the scientific method of social and psychological research in order to aid the student in understanding the theoretical bases of scientific research. The student will develop a working knowledge of the research methods and problems associated with doing human research. The student will gain the ability to recognize both excellent and poor quality research and research methods. Class 3. Prerequisite: Previous coursework in statistics..

PSYC 5073   Lifespan Human Development
A study in developmental psychology which focuses on physical, cognitive, social, emotional, sexual, and personality development from conception to death within the context of basic theories of development. Class 3.

PSYC 5082   Family Systems Theory & Therapies
Examination of the philosophy, theoretical and practical foundations of the family systems approach to marital and family counseling/therapy. The major theorists, theories, various models, and practices are examined. The primary focus is upon the theories, principles, and language that support the numerous marriage and family therapy models. Among other theoretical models, Bowen Family Systems Theory is delineated.

Class 2.

PSYC 5083   Family Systems Theory & Therapies
Examination of the philosophy, theoretical and practical foundations of the family systems approach to marital and family counseling/therapy. The major theorists, theories, various models, and practices are examined. The primary focus is upon the theories, principles, and language that support the numerous marriage and family therapy models. Among other theoretical models, Bowen Family Systems Theory is delineated. Class 3.

PSYC 5093   Counseling Diverse Populations
A study in multicultural counseling that focuses on developing theories and strategies that match the individual and cultural background of the client, as well as expanding counseling to include the multiple helping roles of family, community, and cultural groups. The course will serve as an introduction to the literature, concepts, and skills required to counsel people from populations considered diverse. Coursework will emphasize factors of diversity such as ethnicity, gender, social identification, physical challenges (e.g. hearing impaired, learning disabled, etc.) and the appropriate counseling interventions for working with such populations. Cultural identity development theory will also be covered in this course. Class 3.

PSYC 5102   Theological & Spiritual Dynamics in Counseling
Beginning with an examination of the psychology of spirituality (focusing particularly on the ways in which psychological and spiritual dynamics interact in health and in pathology), this course provides a foundation for addressing spirituality in clinical practice. Clinical implications of the theoretical foundation will be developed by means of reflection on case material as presented by both the professor and students. Class 2.

PSYC 5113   Human Sexuality
This course provides a basic introduction to counseling for sexual issues. Students are introduced to a theology of sexuality, a basic model of addressing sexual issues in counseling, basics of sexual biology and psychology, sexual development, sexual dysfunction, and basic intervention techniques for sexual problems. Students also are challenged in their own growth and development in this area. Class 3.

PSYC 5123   Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
The purpose of this course is to develop studentsí knowledge and skill in the cognitive-behavioral approach to counseling with applications to mental health counseling and marital & family counseling. Students examine theoretical foundations, research findings, basic principles, assessment techniques, and the intervention strategies of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with particular emphasis on a family systems perspective. The practical applications of this therapy are examined, and executive skills required of the cognitive behavioral therapist are instilled. Students will demonstrate skills in this approach of counseling in class. These examinations are applied to a wide variety of problems in living and are framed within a Christian theological context. Class 3.

PSYC 5133   Psychological Testing, Clinical Appraisal and Diagnostic Evaluation in Counseling
A study in theoretical issues and research in clinical assessment with special reference to administration and interpretation of testing procedures and clinical interviewing. Specific training with various methods including personality assessments, interest inventories, behavioral assessments, aptitude and achievement tests, and interviewing techniques. Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 5053.

PSYC 5153   Psychopharmacology
A study to acquaint students with the neurotransmitter systems of the central nervous system and to discuss therapeutic agents which influence these transmitter systems. Provides comprehensive information on the applications and actions of psychotropic drugs, both in therapy and in the etiology and treatment of disorders. Class 3.

PSYC 5162   Trauma and Theodicy
Examination of theodicy as it relates to the life of the counselor and its application to counseling with special attention given to trauma and recovery. Impersonal aspects of theodicy and the application of a theology of hope are emphasized. To live as a human being is to be confronted with the vexing problem of evil and human suffering. Evil constitutes a major philosophical and theological problem for theists. This course will philosophically and biblically explore the nature of the problem of evil, and examine ways of coping with evil and suffering in human experience and in Christian life. This course treats the theological and philosophic effects of crises, disasters, and other trauma-causing events on persons of all ages, as embodied in the theological/philosophical problem of theodicy. Class 2.

PSYC 5172   Healthy Family Functioning
This course is designed to provide an integrative analysis of the characteristic behaviors of healthy families and marriages derived from five primary sources: direct observation of healthy families, the literature from major family therapy theorists, the empirically-based schemas of optimal family health, the research of behavioral correlates of healthy functioning, and the empirically based models of healthy marital and family functioning. The course is designed to inform the graduate student about optimal families and to relate this material conceptually to clinical assessment and interventions. Students also examine healthy functioning across the family developmental stages. Students who complete this course will gain a perspective to balance their exposure to the significant literature and training for marriage and family therapists that is skewed toward pathology. Class 2.

PSYC 5183   Special Topics
Students will be introduced to theory- and practice-specific content related to marriage and family therapy. Students will complete at least 2 special topics courses, as the content will change each semester. This will allow multiple instructors to teach an area of expertise, and will give students the opportunity to develop skills from a variety of clinical approaches. Examples of special topics courses include but are not limited to:

Brief/Solution-Focused & Communication Approaches to MFT
Students examine theoretical foundations, basic principles, assessment techniques, and intervention strategies of these three major schools of marriage and family therapy: Brief, Solution-Focused, and the Communication Approach to marriage and family counseling. The course is taught from a systems theory perspective and in the context of a Christian worldview.

Structural & Behavioral Marriage & Family Therapy
Students examine theoretical foundations, basic principles, assessment techniques, and intervention strategies of these two major schools of marriage and family therapy: Structural MFT and Behavioral MFT. The role of the marriage and family counselor in a variety of practice settings and in relation to other helping professions is discussed. The course is taught from a systems theory perspective and in the context of a Christian worldview.

Contextual, Narrative & Interpersonal Therapies
Students examine theoretical foundations, basic principles, assessment techniques, and intervention strategies of these three major schools of counseling: Contextual Marriage and Family Therapy, Narrative Therapy, and Interpersonal Therapy. The course is taught from a systems theory perspective and in the context of a Christian worldview.

Addictions Counseling
This course introduces students to treatment literature and practices relevant to a wide variety of impulse control disorders. Treatment programs (inpatient and outpatient settings) that focus on substance abuse will receive the majority of attention. Instructors provide direct applications to mental health and marital and family counseling.

Class 3.

PSYC 5202   Professional, Personal & Spiritual Life of the Marriage and Family Therapist
Examines the process of Christian formation from both historical and personal perspectives. Attention is given to the unique personal and spiritual demands of the life and work of the counselor, the historical figures of the Church, and the contributions of modern-day scholars. Students are encouraged to focus on their own personal and spiritual formation and to view this dynamic as being foundational to the counseling process. Class 2.

PSYC 5203   Group Counseling Methods
A study of group counseling theories and techniques. Types of groups, dynamics and methods of practice with groups, and analysis of group leadership and group processes will be considered. Students will practice leading groups. Class 3. Prerequisites: PSYC 5023.

PSYC 5383   Clinical Assessment in Individual, Marital, & Family Therapy
The purpose of this course is to enable students to assess marital and family systems in order to engage in effective individual, marriage and family counseling and treatment planning. An examination of current family demographics, characteristics of dysfunctional families, formal marriage and family clinical assessment strategies and instruments, and interviewing techniques are included. Special attention is given to initial use of the DSM for diagnosis, treatment planning and practice. Assessment and treatment strategies related to depression, crisis intervention and psychological first aid, anxiety, eating disorders, marital conflict, sexual dysfunction, personality disorders and behaviors that impede individual, couple and family functioning. Lectures, discussions, in-class assessments, and other methods are utilized to aid students in acquiring a critical understanding of the contextual/systemic aspects of a comprehensive assessment process and the resulting treatment plan. Class 3.

PSYC 5503   Sex Therapy
This specialization course takes an in-depth look at treatment for sexual dysfunction. Areas of primary focus include the diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunctions specific to desire, pain, arousal and orgasm.
Class 3. Prerequisite: PSYC 5113 or evidence of similar training..

PSYC 6001   Professional Seminar in Marriage & Family Therapy and Professional Counseling
This seminar is designed to assist the students in the integration of their graduate experiences, to prepare them for clinical practice, and to assess their current level of competency across 14 content areas. To assess the students, the instructors will administer the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination. Strengths and weaknesses will be identified. Remedial work may be assigned and required before graduation. Students are provided with information regarding professional identity with ACA and other professional societies. Class 1.

PSYC 6002   Applied Lab & Treatment Planning
The lab is designed to prepare students to conduct intake interviews, maintain appropriate documentation and conduct effective treatment planning, and maximize the supervision process. Special attention is given to use of the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for diagnosis, treatment planning and practice. Emphasis is placed on increased awareness of self/personality and the core conditions of a therapeutic relationship; practice of basic counseling skills in role-play; ethical issues, management of crises, making appropriate referrals, and other topics relevant to the counseling process including information on licensure and credentialing and professional involvement in the counseling profession through the American Counseling Association ACA and its associations such as IAMFC, ASERVIC and AMHCA. Additional information is given on societies such as APA, AAMFT and CAPS. Students must receive approval for continuance on the Student Qualifying Evaluation. Professor may recommend or require additional courses or other remedial work. Class 2. Prerequisites: PSYC 5023 Counseling Skills & Techniques, PSYC 5033 Ethical, Legal and Professional Standards in Counseling Practice, PSYC 5043 Psychopathology: Diagnosis & Treatment of Mental Disorders.

PSYC 6012   Counseling and Marriage & Family Therapy Practicum
An introductory supervised professional field-based experience that is primarily in the provision of direct counseling services. Students serve under the direct supervision of a licensed mental health professional. Emphasis is on instruction in advanced counseling methods and techniques, development of a personal theory of counseling, and counseling practice with supervision. (A minimum of 150 clock hours is required.) Class 2. Prerequisites: PSYC 5023, PSYC 5033, PSYC 5043.

PSYC 6022   Counseling and Marriage & Family Therapy Internship I
A supervised professional field-based experience that is primarily in the provision of direct counseling services. Students serve under the direct supervision of a licensed mental health professional. Emphasis is on the transition from student to becoming a professional counselor (for the MFT track, a marriage & family counselor). (A minimum of 150 clock hours is required.) Class 2. Prerequisites: PSYC 6012.

PSYC 6032   Counseling and Marriage & Family Therapy Internship II
A supervised professional field-based experience that is primarily in the provision of direct counseling services. Students serve under the direct supervision of a licensed mental health professional. Emphasis is on the application of techniques and the limited, supervised practice of marriage and family therapy. (A minimum of 150 clock hours is required.) Class 2. Prerequisites: PSYC 6022.